Private Harold Bywater

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Private Harold Bywater

 

Harold Bywater senior was born in 1896. His father was an engine tester and his grandfather had also been an engine tester. Although his father and grandfather were from Bradford in the West Riding of Yorkshire, they had moved to the hotbed of engineering and heavy industry that was Hunslet, a separate township at the time but later to be incorporated into the City of Leeds, before Harold and his siblings were born.

There was plenty of work in the district and the Bywaters did not shrink from the hardest kind: life was extremely hard.  Accommodation in Hunslet comprised of a warren of terrace houses. The occupants of the warren were the workers who populated the factories that belched out the smoke and fumes that were the by-products of the processes that took place inside these factories.

Apart from the engineering factories, there were foundries producing the steel that would be worked in these factories. There were glass works and pottery works, indeed part of Hunslet was known as Pottery Fields (Fields?).  Coal mines produced the fuel that would provide the intense heat needed to create the steel and the steel structures which would leave the factory gates to be exported world-wide.  It can be seen that Hunslet was at the centre of the Industrial Revolution that made Britain Great. The Empire needed clothing too, of course and Hunslet played its part along with Leeds in general by producing the textiles and garments required.

The price to be paid by the workers as a reward for their sweat and toil was often the highest possible contribution to the wealth of the country and its industrialists. Stories are told of the queues outside factories, particularly foundries. Accidents were so common, and so serious that workers would be stretchered out and immediately replaced by the next in line. Dead men’s shoes!

A study of death records and local grave stones of the era shows the terrible attrition wrought on the local population. Very high proportions of children died long before they reached anything like maturity.

The young Harold would be no stranger to the personal experiences of the above tragedies. His parents had eight children but only four of them reached adulthood.

Harold had hardly reached adulthood himself when the Kings, Kaisers, Czars, Emperors, Grand Dukes and their governments, all afraid of losing or even maintaining the status quo, blundered into a situation that none of them would be brave enough to back away from.

Europe, followed swiftly by the rest of the world went to war!

Harold volunteered and joined up September 3rd 1914 Duke of Wellingtons (West Riding Regiment). 3rd Battalion

He signed up in Leeds and joined his unit in Halifax before moving on to training at Earsdon, Northumberland

He was given the service number of 11677.  He was 5Ft 4 ½ inches tall and weighed 128lbs, just over 9 stones. He was a slight man with a chest of 36inches when expanded.

He was posted and transferred to France on 15th April 1915. Within three weeks, he was to have the first of his many terrible experiences.

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Battle of Hill 60

Battle of Ypres 2nd battle 

(22 April – 15 May, 1915). This was the first mass use of poison gas by the German army; included first victories of a former colonial nation, Canada, over a European power, Germany, on European soil. In total, there were around 100,000 casualties. Harold was one!

On May 1st after many previous attempts to recapture Hill 60, the German attack was supported by great volumes of asphyxiating gas, which caused nearly all the men along a front of about 400 yards to be immediately struck down by its fumes. The Commanding officer in his despatch home praised his officers; ‘The splendid courage with which the leaders rallied their men and subdued the natural tendency to panic (which is inevitable on such occasions), combined with the prompt intervention of supports, once more drove the enemy back’; Note no praise for the bravery and sacrifice of the fighting men!

On 3rd May the Canadian army which had nearly 6000 casualties including over 1000 fatalities were relieved by the British including Harold and his comrades of the West Riding Regiment.

Two days later on the 5th May, in an attempt to regain the infamous Hill 60, the Germans made use of a favourable wind to release a wave of poisonous gas that swept over the British lines. Hundreds of soldiers were engulfed by a noxious yellow fog that killed half of those affected by it. Those who survived were temporarily blinded and stumbled about the battlefield coughing violently. Harold is listed as missing on 5th May but was returned to the Battery on 6th May and removed to Boulogne for treatment of his gas poisoning.

He was in Rouen from 13th May until he was returned to the Battery in the Field on 27th May. On 7th June he was admitted to Field Hospital No 2 suffering from an iron deficiency, likely to be a result of the gassing suffered previously. He returned to the Field Battery on 12th June 1915

What happened to Harold between this June 1915 and July 1st 1916 is not certain. What is certain is that he was in France from 15th April 1915 until July 1916.

Battle of the Somme, Battle of Albert

The Battle of the Somme was fought along a front that was around sixteen miles long.  The British high command had been persuaded by the leader of the French army, Marshall Joffre, against their better judgement, that it was a necessity and it would be a short and successful campaign.

The British had wanted to wait until later, in August, to allow them to properly train the troops required. The French argued that it would be too late and could mean defeat for their army. In the end, the date was set for 1st July 1916.

Harold was with his regiment in the trenches near to the town of Albert.

The decision was made to time the attack at 07.28.

Mines had been laid by tunnelling from the British lines under the German defences and high explosives were to be detonated at the pre ordained time. The mines were huge, containing up to 24 tons of explosive.  A couple of the craters are still visible today.

One of the bigger mines exploded at 07.20, eight minutes earlier than planned. It is not known whether the Germans were hampered, or warned by the error. Certainly it must have been terrifying for those in the vicinity and the British lines were only about a quarter of a mile away. The explosions later were heard in London about one hundred and fifty miles away!

The other mines exploded at 07.28 as planned and gave the signal for the bombardment and advance to begin.

I now see this situation through the eyes of Harold. I have personal connection. It is easy to see the battle of the Somme strictly in numerical terms and although the numbers are astronomic and all casualties (on both sides) were siblings, children, fathers, uncles of someone it is a century ago and no one lives today who fought in the war.

‘Going over the top’ was to be a straightforward walk to take over the German trenches which ‘had been ‘softened up’ and therefore would be devoid of manpower. The truth was of course much different.  The shelling and bombardment had been very spasmodic in its success rate. A huge percentage of the shells intended to render the German trenches undefended had failed to explode.

The weather had been mixed for some time and 1st July was a ‘nice’ sunny day, the early mist having cleared. The ground was slippery however after prolonged bombardment and periods of rain. The sunshine was not welcome to troops requiring to lift themselves from deep trenches and carry heavy loads towards the well armed, ready and waiting enemy.

Harold and his comrades in arms were told to ‘walk’ towards the enemy lines. ‘Walk’ because they were carrying 70 lbs of equipment. ‘Walk’ because crawling would allow a bigger surface area target for the shrapnel release from the shell exploding in the air. In any case, the ‘Germans posed little threat from the expected empty trenches’.

The reality was that soldiers struggled to advance from their own trenches due to the load they carried. Many fell dead or injured as soon as they appeared above the trench rim. Sixty percent of casualties were caused by the shrapnel, the other forty percent by small arms or machine gun fire.

Harold was hit by shrapnel that almost took his right arm away above the elbow. It shattered his humerus and embedded shrapnel into his skin. He was also listed in his record as having shell concussion. For the rest of his life shrapnel would work itself to the surface of his skin and had to be picked out causing great pain. Small black pieces of metal, evidence of hell on earth.

I do not know how long he was in so called ‘no man’s land’. How could it be ‘no man’s land’ when on that first day of July 1916, nearly 60,000 men were laid there dead, dying or seriously injured? To put this number into context, at the outbreak of hostilities, the British army in total was about 250,000 men. There can be no dramatic reconstruction that could in any way do justice to the scenes. The word Armageddon is just that, a word, and cannot be used to describe in general terms the personal suffering that was inflicted upon these individuals.

He arrived at No 6 general Hospital in Rouen on 3rd July. Where he was and in what condition between those dates can only be imagined.

He had his initial treatment in the field hospital. Contemporary photographs of the hospitals at this time can only give an idea of the conditions under which the medical staff toiled to try to save the lives and bodies of the unbelievably huge numbers of casualties. Harold did survive this ordeal.

Finally, on the 9th July, Harold was removed from the theatre of war and transported by sea to Bangour Village Hospital, West Lothian. At the time, this was Edinburgh War Hospital. He arrived there on 12th July 1916.

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Below is a section of the National Roll of The Great War. It shows Harold’s part in the war in a minimalistic way and also includes his brother William S Bywater

First World War Roll

 

 

Private Harold Bywater was one of the ‘lucky’ ones. Eight thousand members of his regiment lost their lives between 1914 and 1918.  The number of those who lost the promise of their pre-war years is impossible to contemplate.

He was discharged in Discharged 15th March 1918 and holds the following awards.

British War Medal

Victory Medal

Kings Certificate

War badge

His war pension at discharge was £1 7s 6d per week for 4 weeks then £1 2s 0d to be reviewed after 52 weeks.

The Kings Certificate and War Badge were issued to soldiers who had to be discharged due to injuries. Such was the attitude to the attrition being wrought on families at home that men of service age who were seen in the street ‘out of uniform’ were often ostracised and even physically attacked as cowards. The Kings Certificate and War Badge were worn as evidence that they had contributed but were no longer able.

I and my relatives are definitely among the lucky ones.  Harold came home earlier than some due to his injuries. He fell in love with a young war widow (one of many thousands), May Richardson, who had lost her husband, James Richardson, the father of her baby daughter. They married in 1918 and May gave him three sons and another daughter. Harold Bywater junior, the eldest son, became my father.

That is the reason that I regard myself as one of the lucky ones.

Harold Bywater senior was my Grandad!

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I saw at first-hand evidence the injury to his right arm. The injuries to his lungs obviously were not visible but were obvious nevertheless. He never complained; there was not an ounce of bitterness in him. Note the entry on his military service sheet; Character Very Good. No question about that!

Yes, he was my Grandad, I am very proud of his memory but saddened that it has taken so long for me to appreciate his contribution to our country in that obnoxious war.

That war has been for me and I am sure many others, a statement of statistics, albeit difficult to comprehend, rather than a description of the genuine suffering felt by those present in those very dark times.

Even more sadly, only twenty years later, Harold senior and May would be waving a tearful goodbye to Harold Junior and his brother, Stanley as they went off to another war. Daughter, Frances, would be left producing munitions in Hunslet’s engineering workshops

It is my wish that in some small way, due to the reading of this small and inadequate personal tribute to Harold senior my family will not allow the memory of him to fade.

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Johnsons Etc

 

There is no guarantee that all the details outlined below are all absolutely accurate. However, the vast majority of facts are traceable and there is supporting evidence. I hope you enjoy the trip through the family history as much as I have. The research continues! 

To start with some context, The Battle of Waterloo was fought in 1815, Queen Victoria was born in 1819 and the Irish famine was in the late 1840’s.

In the late 18th century, workers began to lose the means of survival on the land and started to look for alternative means in the cities. the move towards industrialisation and the process of enclosure that took land away from poor people who had survived on small areas of land fuelled the move from rural to urban population.

There was work in the industrialising towns and cities and a living of sorts to be made.  Conditions were extremely difficult and dangerous on many fronts not least health and safety which many wealthy industrialists did not allow to slow production. Child mortality, death of mothers during and as a result of childbirth was scandalous as were the mortality rates caused by dreadful working conditions.

Even then, in the beginning, much of production was achieved in the homes of weavers and other textile workers. The industrial revolution was the catalyst for the change of all that. An example of the effect and fear this engendered was the Luddite rebellions which began in the north midlands and north of England. These ‘followers’ of the mythical ‘Ned Ludd’ rallied together in 1811 in an attempt to stop the industrialisation of the nation because they were afraid of losing their jobs. It was such a serious state of affairs that the government, wishing to protect its sponsors and patrons, introduced the death penalty for those deemed to have damaged machinery.

The scandalous ‘corn laws’ kept the cost of imported food artificially high to protect the wealthy landowners at home. This kept the price of food for workers exorbitantly high, increasing the likelihood of undernourished and vulnerable poor workers.

There were places in Britain where injuries at work were so common and severe that there were queues of ‘hopeful’ workers outside factory gates waiting to substitute those carried from the factories unable to work to complete their shift. On St Peters Field, Manchester in August 1819 a crowd of protesters were charged by a cavalry militia. The protesters wanted reform of parliamentary representation. Dozens were killed and hundreds injured.

George Johnson the First was born 26th October 1823 in Frindsbury in Kent.  George’s father was John (b.1801 and his mother Charlotte (b.1802). Frindsbury was close to the naval dockyards at Chatham and was heavily involved in building military ships during a time when Britain built up the strongest navy in the world. HMS Bellerophon which was involved in many high-profile engagements including the Battle of Trafalgar was one of those ships.

Other industries in the region included chalk production and other quarrying activities.

Charles Dickens was beginning to publish his works based on his observations of social deprivations in England and particularly the environs of London. At the same time, the Bronte sisters were producing novels describing the arduous conditions suffered by those populating the West Yorkshire Pennines and moors.

George would grow up and marry a girl, Julia, from Cork, Ireland. They would nurture a large family and eventually make what would in those times be an epic journey to Leeds in the West Riding of Yorkshire.

They would marry in 1850, George is described as a labourer; Julia endorses the certificate with ‘her mark’ an X. They have been impossible to locate during the years after their marriage until 1861.

Eventually, they would have a large family and their children would be named:  Charlotte, Jane, Matilda, George (the Second), Samuel, Hester, Steven, Mark, Julia and Alice.

In 1871, the family were in Frindsbury and George was still a labourer.

By 1881, the family were to be found at 3 Richmond Terrace, Leeds. The family had a variety of skills from Iron Moulder to Shoemaker and Tailoring. By now, George II was living independently at 4 Wentworth Street, Leeds with his wife Jane Ann and his daughters Jane and Julia. Jane Ann was born in Stockton, Durham and daughter Jane was born in Middlesbrough. Julia was born in Leeds. They had been married in Durham. In 1884, Michael Marks opened his penny bazaar in Leeds Market; an inauspicious start for Marks and Spencer.

George II was a Mechanic/Driller so had moved into the heavy industry of Leeds.

By the 1891 census, George 1st had died in 1883 and was buried in Becket Street Cemetery, Leeds. Julia l was living with five of her children, a son in law and a grandson at No 1 Richmond Crescent, Leeds.

George the second was living at 32 Ascot Street and Samuel (b 1882) and Charles (b 1889) were additions to the family. George was a horizontal borer.

By 1901, George 2nd was at 72 Ascot Terrace, Leeds. He was still a Mechanic/Iron Borer and an addition to the family was George III (b 1896). Sam, as he is listed in the census, was a Sewing Machine Mechanic. This career would keep him busy until his death in 1952. Eldest daughter, Jane, had moved from the family home and got married.

Jane Ann, wife of George 2nd died in 1909 and is buried in Killingbeck Cemetery, Leeds.

The 1911 Census shows George 2nd living with two of his sons, a niece and two of her children at 57, Ascot Street, Leeds and still with the occupation of Iron Borer.

George II died in 1934 and is buried in Killingbeck cemetery.

Joshua Drake was born in 1784, 5 years before the French revolution. He married Elizabeth Tildsley in 1804 and their children, John and Thomas, were born in 1805 1nd 1808 respectively. As was the tragic trend of the time, Elizabeth died due to childbirth complications along with her baby Sarah in 1812. Joshua remarried, Mercy Atkinson, and their first child, named Mercy after her mother, died as a baby in 1814. Joshua and Mercy did however succeed in rearing 3 further daughters and 3 more sons including Robert who was born in 1827.

Robert was to marry Ellen Thackrah and they had 3 sons including Robert and 4 daughters.

Lepton, near Huddersfield was a rural village in the West Riding of Yorkshire. The industries around Lepton included Weaving, Farming and Mining.

George Senior was born in Lepton in 1823 and married Charlotte Ellam in 1848. They had five children including twins Martha and Charles who were born in 1856. George was a farm labourer in 1861.

In 1891 aged 68, George was working as a gardener and living with Charlotte in Belle Isle Road, Leeds.

Martha by this time had married Robert Drake in 1879 and was living in 10 Milton Street, Holbeck, Leeds with children Amy, John and Mary. Robert was a metal planer.

Sadly, by the next census in 1901, Robert Drake had died (in 1893 aged 34) and Martha remarried to William Newton. Still living with the Newton family were Amy Drake, John Drake and Charlotte Drake.

Amy Drake married Samuel Johnson in April 1904. They were to have seven sons and two daughters. The males were Alfred, Allan, Edward, Thomas, George, Samuel Bernard and their sisters Amy and Vera. The other son was also Samuel Bernard who sadly was born in 1911 and died in 1912. Samuel and Amy were obviously keen to remember their lost child.

Amy died aged only 47 in 1931 and Samuel passed away in 1952. Their legacy includes 22 grandchildren.

Forging a Dynasty:Walking in the footsteps of Abraham!

The times of William Bywater and his son Charles were times of massive change in England.

William was born around 1725 and lived in Bradford less than 20 years after the Act of Union brought the Kingdom of Great Britain into being. Only six years before, a combined invasion by an alliance of Jacobite and Spanish forces were defeated at the battle of Glen Shiel to bring an end to the last close contact military engagement fought on the mainland of the British Isles.

In 1789, France was in turmoil. The wealthy and aristocracy were being parted from their dominance along with their hat and crown supports. It could be said that they were relieved of their wealth by one of the sharpest practices ever designed by man!

The  French working class had had enough. In fact they had suffered too much for too long. The hierarchy was living on a different plane, out of touch with the means of production.

Britain was in the process of industrial revolution, population was moving from rural poverty to urban deprivation. Machinery began to replace manual labour so the home based weavers were beginning to face redundancy and moving into the factories. Followers of the mythical ‘Ned Ludd’ (Luddites) attacked the progressive wealth bearing machines in fear for their future. Of course, the wealthy beneficiaries of the means of production also controlled the means of national government and soon the ‘criminals’ who damaged machinery faced the death penalty

Bradford in the West Riding of Yorkshire was just one of many towns and cities in Britain that provided a place of work where those able to find that work would be able to create a home life that vied with the worst conditions that humans could be expected to endure.

The town was reputed to be the most polluted in England, smoke poured from hundreds of chimneys and with the lack of decent water, sanitary conditions were lamentable. The mortality rate, particularly of  children was such that a child had only a thirty percent chance of reaching the age of fifteen. Life expectancy in Bradford at the time was eighteen, around the lowest in England.

In Manchester in 1819 a crowd of between 60 and 80 000 gathered to protest against the prevailing parliamentary system which allowed inadequate representation for the working class whose conditions of work and home were abject poverty. Cavalry were ordered to disperse the crowd which until that time had been peacefully demonstrating. The result was carnage with a minimum of 18 dead and between 400 and 600 injured, many seriously.

In the wealthiest country in the world, the working class was living in such dire environments that, even if they were working, life was very little different to that endured by slaves.

The acclaimed Bronte family were developing their skills amidst a tragic personal story of premature death and unfulfilled promise on the outskirts of Bradford in the early 19th century. The first of the sisters was born in 1814 and Charlotte, the third born and ironically the last survivor arrived in 1816. Charlotte died in 1855, aged 38, of tuberculosis and pregnancy complications less than a year after her marriage. Patrick, the father of the remarkable family survived them all. This family timeline illustrates the perils of life at the time. Although the Brontes lived on the beautiful but bleak and difficult moors just outside Bradford where the air was sparkling clean compared with the filth, destitution and degradation of the town below, life and death, particularly for women was a lottery. Childbirth was a challenge that many women and their babies could not overcome. Diseases such as tuberculosis, typhus, cholera attacked all citizens whatever their social standing.

Charles Bywater was born around 1750 and married in 1775. As was to be the trend in the Bywater, and many other, families, he named a son, born in 1786, William after his father. This William, married Mary and they in turn had a son also called William. More significantly, to my branch of the family tree, they had a son called Abraham who was born in 1828.

In 1840 Antarctica was ‘discovered’ and in 1841 China ,allowed, Britain to take over Hong Kong.

Abrahams’ father William Bywater and mother Mary were living in Holly Park, Bradford in 1841. He was a coal miner as were his two sons, William and Joseph. His third son, Abraham was a ‘hurrier’ in a coal mine at the age of 14. A hurrier was employed to manually push trolleys loaded with coal up narrow tunnels too small for adults.

In 1849, the corn law was repealed in Britain allowing affordable food to be available instead of having to pay artificially inflated prices. In 1851 the Great Exhibition opened in London to showcase the Industrial might of Britain.

Abraham survived his early years challenges to marry Mary Garside, daughter of William (a miner) and Ann, in 1849. By the time of the 1851 census, they were living in Wyke, Bradford. Abraham was described as an engine tenter and would have responsibility for the operation of engines powering machinery, probably in a coal mine. At this time Abraham and Mary had two sons, Charles and Robert both of whom died as young children. The following decade included the Irish potato famine and the Crimean war with the charge of the Light Brigade as further low points for poor people. Charles and Robert Bywater were not alive for the next census (1861) by which time, Abraham and Mary had moved to Hunslet in Leeds.

Health and safety were not an issue for employers at that time. There are stories of hopeful employees waiting outside factories in the ‘hope’ that someone will be injured inside creating an opportunity to fill ‘dead mans’ shoes

Abraham was still an engine tenter, now probably in a forge in the huge production centre that Hunslet had become. They had a seven year old daughter Harriet, yet another child who did not survive to the next (1871) census. They took her back to Bradford to be buried near to her elder brothers.

In 1871, Abraham and Mary were living in Ebony Street, Hunslet and had their own version of William Bywater born in 1865, as well as a daughter, Sarah, who was two years old at the time of the census.

The first Boer War had begun in Southern Africa. Leeds (including Hunslet) could provide uniforms, blankets and the more aggressive hardware of war.

The 1881 Census reminds us yet again of the fragility of life at the time. Sarah is no longer there. William is now employed as an assistant engine man to his father who is listed as an engine man. William has a younger brother Arthur who is seven years old. They are living in Rufus Street, Hunslet.

In 1891 they are still in Rufus Street. Abraham at 64 is an engine man and Arthur at 17 is a forge man. Two doors down the street, William, now listed as a labourer in an iron foundry is living with his wife Rebecca (formerly Riley) and their son Clifford. Once more tragedy would visit the Bywaters. Clifford would not survive childhood, he died in 1895 aged five years and in all, Rebecca and William would lose four of their children. Four would survive to adulthood fortunately. Their eldest son was Harold, William Stanley, to be known as Stanley, Nellie and finally William, to be known as William made up the final numbers of the family. They lived in Rufus Street still and William Sr. was a labourer in an Iron Foundry

In 1893 Abraham died aged 65 and was buried in a communal grave with about twenty others in Hunslet Cemetery. Five years later, Mary died aged 70 and was also buried in a communal grave in Hunslet Cemetery. A pleasing coincidence is that the two graves face each other with the inscription faces clearly visible.

The second Boer War was requiring the same input from Hunslet as the first one had.

In 1901 William, Rebecca, Harold and William Stanley were still living  in Rufus Street. William was now working as a Coal Stather being involved in the unloading of coal from trucks delivering coal from the local collieries before transferring it to bigger containers supplying industry. Middleton Railway provided the first commercial railway in the world to transport coal from nearby Middleton to Hunslet.

In 1911 William and Rebecca could be found in Rufus Street along with Harold and William Stanley. They had been joined by Nellie and William who was a one year old baby. William now a stationary engine man for Leeds Corporation had rwo working sons. Harold, 16, was an engine oiler in a steel works and William Stanley a machine feeder in a printworks at 13 years of age.

Europe was beginning to simmer in all quarters. Russia had already had a number of violent revolts by the workers against the ruling aristocracy and many European countries were seeking to form reliable alliances against the threats from a number of quarters.

In 1914 the dread became reality and Britain joined a war that would provide horrors as yet unseen. Hunslet would continue to produce not only machinery and clothing of war but also human fighting machines. Harold and William Stanley joined the army and went off to see what would befall them. That is a story in itself.

The Controversies and Legacies of the British Empire

I was born in 1944 and the refrains when I was at (Grammar) school were of the calibre of Rule Britannia, Land of Hope and Glory, Hearts of Oak and the like. Our country was recovering from the Second World War in a generation. As far as I, at school age, was concerned we had beaten the invaders yet again. I along with my classmates sang with gusto.

I do not think we were subjected to propaganda as such but neither do I think we were given all the facts that we needed to make educated judgements.

Obviously with my advancing years and an enquiring mind, I have educated myself through whatever media has been readily available although I have never actively studied history as a serious student. I achieved no qualifications from school, my fault not theirs. I do however have a thirst for history now – including my own!

I recently enrolled in a free course looking at the controversies and legacies of the British Empire.

There can be no definitive answer regarding the legacy of the British Empire but perceptions of individuals are definitive as far as that individual is concerned.

The first consideration for me is to decide when the Empire was ‘born’. If it can be accepted that the likes of Francis Drake and Walter Raleigh, given a free rein to compete with the Spanish who were already building an empire of their own, set sail from England with the blessing of Elizabeth 1 to sow the seeds of the Empire, then imperial expansion measures the time between the two Elizabethan eras.

Drake, Raleigh etc including those from other European nations were the astronauts of their time. They set off from home on a wing and a prayer with very little knowledge to support their aspirations. They did not have the massive back up teams that their modern counterparts have available. That they returned home at all was a wonder of the world and many did not. What they reported on their return home however whetted the appetite of their ruling classes. Europe set off to take over the world.

Actions carried out first in the name of England and later Britain over the ensuing years after Elizabeth 1 show how powerful, ruthless, ingenious and influential the explorers, colonisers and financiers of the ages could become.

European nations were in great competition for influence all around the known world for long periods from the 16th to the 18th century and England was simply one of these. However, there was a change that took place in England that accelerated its power and influence; the industrial revolution!

The industrial revolution created the opportunities for the wealthy to make the use of the empire for both provision of raw materials but also, even more significantly a ready market for their goods producing the new technologies. Here is where the true positive legacy of the empire is displayed and also where the negative aspects are most felt.

In order for the industrial might of Britain to flourish, labour had to be cheap. It is shown that the decades after the spread of industry saw a sharp decline in the well being of workers. Friedrich Engels (a German!) did major research into the Condition of the English Working Class in England which also expanded into the major cities of Ireland, Scotland and Wales. His description of the depravities suffered by the workers in a book written in 1845 is illuminating. The exploitation of workers does not occur only at home, the workers around the empire toil under no better and in many cases worse conditions.

There are personal records for me to back up the assertions by Engels. in 1841, My grear, great grandfather at the age of 13 was a ‘hurrier’ in a coal mine. His job was to push wagons, loaded with coal, along tunnels too small for adult workers to use. He lived in Bradford, West Yorkshire where the odds of a child surviving to adulthood were around 50:50. My ancestor had 2 children by 1851 both had died before 1861. He and his wife had eight children of which only 2 achieved maturity. Even half a century later, in Leeds, his son and daughter-in-law had eight children of whom only four survived to maturity.

The wealthy became wealthier and there was no limit to their expansion within the British sphere of influence. Many of the industries that are regarded with great affection and reverence have their roots fertilised by the evil of slavery and exploitation of poor people. In particular, the huge corporations still producing sugar and chocolate received their raw materials from colonies using slave labour.

In order to protect this trade Britain took control or cultivated influences along the trade routes so that the Royal Navy could protect those routes and keep the trade flowing. Having the bases and the naval power to keep the routes open was a legacy of the power developed through immense wealth as a nation / empire. Hong Kong, Singapore, Cape Town, Malta, Gibraltar are just a few of the ports that were developed for the purpose of providing safe havens for trading ships.

Railways were built and in most cases still exist to help communications and other infrastructures in order for countries to continue developing. Many other industries exist throughout the former empire as a direct legacy of colonisation.

Legacies that can still be seen as lasting positive outcomes of empire are the adoption of many British customs that have allowed free and democratic governments to flourish in many countries and the continued success and popularity of the Commonwealth.

English style education systems and the adoption of English as an international language can be seen as positive legacies simply on the basis that any language adopted and used by so many communities worldwide must be an advantage for international communication.

Britain has rightly been criticised for using excessive force on many occasions and these cannot be overlooked. In particular, air policing was used in order to control problems without risking troops on the ground. I did not know of the term ‘air policing’ and I am unable to see it in any other terms than an aggressor using the best technology or means available to it. That is not justification because it is violence after all and the dropping of Atom bombs at Hiroshima and Nagasaki were the ultimate examples of people justifying unfathomable violence against civilians. There can be no justification.

Who can measure the harm, or the benefits for that matter, of imposing ‘culture’ and ‘education’ on people? I think it is true of human nature that they, particularly young people, will learn what they can. If what they learn is not what they would have learned if left to their own devices, does that mean they and their country have benefited from that education or not?

My closing comments however are related to the driving force of colonisation and imperial expansion. The winners throughout the imperial centuries have been the wealthy and the financiers who were able to take advantage of the conditions that developed around exploration, colonisation and industrialisation. The losers worked in the conditions set by the winners.

The real issues for me are around who were the power behind empire. Not the sovereign but the industrialists. Leopold, King of the Belgians, managed to combine both disciplines in the ‘Belgian Congo’using personal influence in order to cultivate immense personal wealth outside the control of the government of the country.

Perhaps the most poignant, and I do not remember this being mentioned in the course, is the fact that business men, and some from very well known families from our time, were paid substantial sums of money to compensate them for losing slaves when slavery was abolished. Even at that stage, the government put a price on a slave!

Septuagenhairybiker

I am now looking back at the biblical three score years and ten milestone and my wife is approaching from the other side. It must be time now for a plan.

Over the years I have honed a skill in day dreaming that has often thrown up the plan for the future, I am looking at a particularly suitable pass-time that we can both indulge in and that will help to chisel our physical features. No I am not going down the line of Botox, Collagen or any form of cosmetic surgery. What I have in mind will achieve the results without resorting to a knife. There will be an initial financial outlay but since it will do the job for both of us, it will be much less expensive in the long run.

We have all been at the seaside or a roadside cafe when there has been an invasion of bikers.

They cruise in, park their bikes at the point nearest the action so there is a conglomeration of two-wheeled machines. Now it doesn’t matter if someone appears to be blocked in since they will all be leaving together. It appears to  be OK if they are parked on the pavement.

They slide off their machines and after a furtive glance around divest themselves of their helmets before ‘klomping’ off in their boots to the nearest fish and chip shop. I always arrive ten seconds after the last of the multitude arrives at the end of the queue.

It was being at the end of the queue that provided me with the first flash of inspiration for my plan.  Most of those who began by exuding an aura of youthful arrogance and malevolence were as far away from youthfulness as I am. They were in fact glancing around rather shyly. Malevolence had left the building about forty years ago.

The conversation was about the good old days, when the pension was paid in cash to your hand in the local post office, what time the grand-kids arrive for the taxi ride to school etc.etc. To show membership of the club, they all had their hair ‘dyed’ the same colour: a sparkling silver. Although a large proportion of the male population had no hair to dye.  However, in an attempt to show they belonged, the hair cascading from their ears blended with the rest. It is like the sixtieth ‘Children of the Damned’ sequel.

The realisation slowly dawned that they all had a stature that belied their age. I began to make notes!

I looked at motor cycle clothing and was amazed!

The following is a list, not exhaustive by any means, of common ailments that affect the aged. Sagging muscles and flesh, vertigo, arthritis, poor eyesight and hearing, various levels of incontinence, memory loss and slow reaction times.

Motor cycle clothing challenges all of these and banishes them to the ‘under the table’ category. No cures but nobody knows!

So let’s have a fitting. We will start at the bottom, the feet that is, to avoid any confusion and work upwards.

First a pair of thick socks already begins to address the swollen ankles. A foundation of thermal but firm undergarments or garment continues the squeeze. Now a pair of leather or leather like trousers. Must be tight so they will not flap in the wind. No room for flabby flesh which is being pushed upwards as you get them installed. Now assistance is needed to stand and force your feet into the boots. These have shin and ankle protection built-in on the plus side but a very large negative is that the zip is much too far from the hands. You will be beginning to realise why septuagenhairybikers are never seen alone. They do not function alone.

The vision now is reminiscent of the song ‘Big John’. Broad at the shoulders and narrow at the hip is the relevant phrase that all septuagenarians, not only bikers, will remember. There is a problem though, the flesh above waist level is beginning to look like a bubble about to burst and the corset has yet to be fitted. The ‘corset’ is in actual fact a kidney and back protector that can be a part of the trousers, part of the jacket or separate and independent. So the jacket has to be ‘slightly’ over-sized in order to make room for the new you but the external view is beginning to look appealing to the wearer.  The jacket plays its part though. You can have shoulder, neck and back supports which apart from having safety points to note also add to the broad shoulders and upstanding nature of the beast.

The helmet is, of course, not only a legal requirement. It changes Clark Kent into Superman and nobody recognises Clark. He has gone! Nobody sees the bottle bottom glasses but sliding them into place through the visor space without surgery is not easy. The helmet can be fitted with an internal sound system so you can leave the hearing aid at home!

Finally, fit the gloves. Lots of protection and centrally heated to slow the onset of arthritis. They can even be attached semi permanently to the handlebars to help avoid any confusion about left and right.

Now let us return to the list of complaints of the aged population.

Vertigo is characterised by a loss of balance when attempting to get vertical from a horizontal position. This is offset by the stiff and heavy nature of the boots and the fact that you are held vertical by the stiffness of the super tight clothing. Stubbing your arthritic toes and bashing your ankles are things of the past due to the protective pads built-in to feet, ankles, knees, elbows etc  You can’t fall over and even if you managed it you would be unhurt due to the strategic armour.

Poor memory is a thing of the past. At least when on the bike. You will not get lost since there are about thirty bikes all going to the same place. The chances of all thirty riders and their passengers forgetting the way is ‘almost’ beyond fathomable.The route is chosen carefully! You are riding a bike that is capable of covering three hundred miles in a couple of hours. The septuagenhairybikers though, need to stop at a ‘watering hole’ every fifteen minutes. Next time you are on the road on a warm weekend check how often you see a crowd of bikers outside a cafe. More important, notice that nobody is drinking. They can’t afford to take on any more liquid! So they go out for a weekend ‘blast’ and take all day riding to the nearest coast and back via half a dozen well known biker friendly cafes. Naturally, the waterproof nature of the biker trousers mitigates any incontinence issue that might arise from being at the back of the queue at the conveniences. Fill your boots has a different connotation here!

So it looks as if it would be the solution for us. Taking the tablets won’t do it but biking could. I have still got my biker licence from the days in the sixties when my faithful Francis Barnett seemed so powerful going downhill with the wind but woefully lacking in anything in the other direction. Before adding the weight of passengers, modern bikes have the power to weight ratio of a formula one car. Keeping the machine in 1st gear produces the howl we all hear when a group of bikers goes by without losing the element of surprise when they crawl by with legs outstretched like stabilisers to offset the problem of slow reaction times.

So, yes, there will be a financial implication to joining the ‘Hellz Methuzellers Chapter’ but it is not money down the drain. If we find the cafes are too far apart and I am falling asleep at the handlebars after the lunchtime fish and chips, we can part exchange the bike for a Harley Davidson lookalike Disability Scooter. We will look really mean! They can’t hear you coming!. We can continue wearing all the gear and really cause some pavement havoc on the daily Complan run from the sheltered housing centre to the One Stop Robber Shop……………..

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Military Legacy

Many of my fellow employees had served in the forces. I started work in 1960, only 15 years after World War 2 ended.  The following decade and a half was to see Britain’s military in action in Korea, the Middle East, Cyprus and Kenya so national service was to extend until December 1960. I missed being called up by two years.

Some of my co-workers had been involved in war-time service although that did not apply to many as the motor industry was, and is, a young man’s ‘game’. Those who did serve in the war were almost invariably in REME (Royal Electrical and Mechanical Engineers) and had engineering training in the forces. At the time, these men appeared quite old to me but of course they only needed to be about 35 years old in 1960 to have spent a couple of years in WW2 service. With this hindsight, I look back at them with more respect than perhaps I accorded them at the time.

I know that there are some aspects of the military life that would have done some good for me. There was some inner discipline in them that certainly was not intrinsic to my being. Most but not all of my ex service colleagues were tidy workmen who looked after their equipment. They kept hand tools clean and in good condition. They were always easy to find being kept in an orderly fashion in the tool box. Generally, but not exclusively, they carried themselves in what could be described as a military manner. Upstanding and straight backed, they almost marched around the workshop.

Most young men had the option of deferring their service until they had completed their apprenticeship or job training as long as it was genuine vocational training. Some of my colleagues had deferred and had come from the forces quite recently. Others had not deferred but had, instead decided to take advantage of training offered by extending their national service into a limited regular service.

As far as the value of all this to a workshop like ours was concerned, I have no doubt that the infusion of men with military training had a very definite positive effect. These were well trained men who had known hard times and had the ability and mindset to tackle and succeed at their appointed task.

I have not many stories of the horrors of war. They did not talk about them, although some must have encountered some awful situations. What they did talk about were incidents that related to their job.

Even on national service and after WW2, some of my colleagues had been in very hazardous situations in Korea,fighting Mau Mau terrorists in Kenya, EOKA in Cyprus and of course dealing with the stress of the Cold War in Germany. In fact much of the relevant experience that found its way into our workshop was transferred from Tanks and other Military vehicles maintained and repaired in Germany.

Some of the ex military men were ex RAF of course and they perhaps more than any others fitted the stereotype of the day. In some cases there was a moustache on the top lip. Overalls were a lighter blue and although Brylcreem was not necessarily the order of the day, they were certainly less likely to be covered in the oil and grease that many of us absorbed.

Of course Mr Dapper Geniality was an ex RAF man. At the time he was lampooned as a Brylcreem boy, Fighter Pilot, Spitfire Jockey amongst others, never to his face of course; he was the boss! Much of the banter referred to his driving style which would have fitted quite well in the cockpit of the Spitfire. He had two speeds; fast and stop. His driving was, however, not much different to many of us at that time.

I did not know definitely that he had been in the RAF until fifty years later when a story appeared on the local television news programme. It turned out to be about Mr Dapper Geniality himself. He was in fact a celebrated Lancaster bomber pilot during the war and had flown a number of missions over Germany managing on one occasion to land a crippled plane and saving his crew. He was decorated for his actions.

A striking example of the need to be careful with tools is the subject of one of my favourite stories told by one of my colleagues who was an airframe fitter in the RAF. National service but post WW2 and in North Yorkshire, this individual had been carrying out repairs and maintenance on a Hawker Hunter jet fighter. The work required some access to the cockpit of the plane. On completion of the work, a pilot took the plane for ‘literally’ a spin. Whilst flying upside down at a speed which demands utmost concentration, a pair of pliers dropped into the glass dome of the cockpit cover. The pilot immediately shouted down the radio in highly descriptive language giving a brief commentary of the occurrence. This was heard in the hangar which had a radio receiver on loud speaker. According to my friend, this announcement was followed by a stampede of all mechanics to ensure they could produce a pair of well grounded pliers. My friend did manage to produce but I will never know where he got them from!

Another incident relayed to me by a different air frame mechanic involved him being required to slide down the air intake of a jet aircraft to check the state of rivets in the cowling. He had to be well down the intake tube to carry out a visual and manual check. Generally, aircraft have a cover in the intake to avoid the ingress of foreign bodies but of course this had been removed for access.

So the mechanic was well down the tube when he heard a jet engine start to fire up and rotate. His immediate thought was that it was the other engine on the twin jet he was working on and he had to get out as the next thing to happen would be the starting of the engine that was inches from his head. These intake tubes are very smooth and kept clean and shiny. They do not have hand hold or foot grips. His only thought was to exit the tube as fast as he could and that involved too many seconds of slithering like a snake but in reverse!

He exited the tube to find that the engine started was on the plane next to his in the hangar. Thinking it through later, he realised his worst fear could not have materialised as there were safeguards. His reaction was natural but unnecessary. The concept of a huge person processor rotating at 100,000rpm and dragging you in bodily would cause paranoia in anyone.

Next time you see a convoy of army trucks and it is not an uncommon sight in East and North Yorkshire look underneath the rear and you will see a white circle painted on the rear axle. The purpose of this circle is so that it is visible to vehicles following as part of a convoy which for operational reasons might be travelling without lights. Obviously, in the dark only the lead driver will have any idea what the route is and all the others follow a white circle without the time or option of looking around and enjoying the view.

One tale that came out over a cup of tea in the canteen, as was so often the case, involved the operational deficiency of the white circle. On a war time training exercise in Northern Ireland prior to a major offensive in Europe, a convoy of trucks was making its way through the countryside. Even now, Ireland is blessed with less light pollution than we have in the UK evidenced by the stumble back to friendly folk after a couple of drinks in the local pub when we visit family on the emerald isle. Back to the tale! This particular convoy was out much longer than expected and could have been a cause of a major international incident. Reports came in later that residents of the Republic of Ireland had reported a large convoy of military trucks trundling through the neutral state that was not in the habit of providing assistance or friendship to the army of Great Britain. The driver in truck number one had missed his way only to recognise his error when making his way past a hostelry at kicking out time. The name of the pub and the unmistakeable sign of its best selling liquid were the best hint he had to find his way back home as directly as possible. I suppose the lesson was well learned that it was a training run and for that reason less likely to be repeated in Holland, Belgium or France!

The footnote to this story is the unit involved were part of the exploratory set up organisation for preparation for the disastrous Arnhem (Bridge Too Far) venture. The man who told me the story recounted that his regiment were marching along a flat road in Holland with a drainage ditch on either side. Totally exposed! From behind them came sudden commotion and the ground either side of the marchers was disturbed by tiny explosions. An aircraft flew past them with a piercing roar the like of which none of them had ever heard before. It turned out they had been strafed in what had been one of the earliest known attacks by jet aircraft. The most outstanding element to the attack was that nobody heard the plane approaching, only its passing.

Many of those in service spent a great deal of time in the UK. They would regularly be given free time that would allow visits to local hostelries. One group had a relationship with the sergeant that was far from benevolent. He was regarded by most as a bully demanding no respect. On one leave sortie out of camp to the local pub, they had discussed what they would do to him in their wildest dreams.

Little did they know the opportunity that would present itself to them on their return to camp. As they walked towards their hut, they saw a motor-bike leaning against another hut. They had been drinking for two or three hours and were ready for reintroducing their bladders to the latrine. The motor-bike belonged to the sergeant. There were plenty of them to keep eyes peeled. Petrol filler caps did not have locks in those days. Petrol and urine were similar in colour and viscosity. They took turns to urinate into the petrol tank.

They had just settled into their bunks and began to relax when they heard a motor cycle start up and power off into the distance only to begin coughing and spluttering before there was the roar of silence followed by a spontaneous breakout of laughing fits from the bunks. Nobody was ever punished and it did not make the sergeants’ behaviour any better but it was certainly easier to live with.

More Driving Mad

I recently paid a visit to Brighouse. A small town in the former Heavy Woollen District of West Yorkshire, Brighouse is on the eastern slopes of the Pennines. Being situated where it is, the town is separated from Leeds by a number of downward slopes. It is a lovely town with some beautiful Victorian buildings which remind the observer of affluent times gone by. My over-riding memories of Brighouse relate to neither affluence or beauty.

I was dispatched along with BP to collect a car which was broken down and needed the expertise of our Renault Main Dealership. We collected the Renault 750 from the local Renault dealership and commenced to attach it to the back of our Commer pickup with a rope. We had a journey of about fifteen miles which would have taken about thirty to forty-five minutes….

Nowadays, if you are going to tow a vehicle in a professional manner, you attach the two vehicles by means of a strong metal bar or, even more preferably, you would use an A-Frame or a vehicle transporter trailer. The solid bar method ensures the gap between towing and towed vehicles is maintained safely – particularly important since the one at the rear will almost certainly have compromised braking efficiency if the engine is not running. All the braking is done by the towing vehicles and the person controlling the towed vehicle simply concentrates on steering, not in itself always as simple as it sounds, but generally the towed vehicle is dragged along in the direction dictated by the towing vehicle.

BP was the senior member of our team of two so he pulled rank and was to drive the pickup whilst I was to command the rearguard! Now it is important to recognise the difference between modern day vehicles and the Renault. There was no power steering or brakes even if the engine was running, which it wasn’t. The brakes were not designed for high performance and power steering was not required for such a lightweight vehicle. We attached a rope and the nightmare began!

Being towed by rope requires a completely different strategy to a bar. The ‘driver’ of the towed vehicle has the job of keeping the tow-rope tight. If the rope is not tight, the towed vehicle freewheels towards the towing vehicle every time a gear change is made or the brake is pressed. The consequence of this is a resounding jerk every time the slack is taken up. If the rope is not strong enough, a break occurs; if the attachment site is not strong enough, a lump of bodywork is ripped off one or other of the vehicles. If these calamities are  avoided, there is a neck jarring shock transferred to the towed ‘driver’. So I was employed keeping the rope reasonably taut negotiating the hills down towards Leeds. Every junction, every bend, if I say so myself, I was quite good at it.

It did not take long though to realise that as time went on, I was having to press the brake harder to achieve the same retardation performance. Not only that but we were actually travelling faster as we progressed along our route.

I began to get a bit worried and pressed the horn hoping that BP might stop so that I could communicate my fears. I do not remember whether the horn worked or not but it had no effect on BP. The rest of the journey can best be described from my privileged position as careering. The runaway Renault came down the track and she did not blow! The brakes had gone into a complete fade, a comparatively common problem at the time if brake linings were allowed to get too hot.

About a mile from our garage, I had used up all the prayers and expletives I knew but the climax was about to unfold. On the Whitehall Road in Leeds is a public house called The Dragon. Close to The Dragon is a notorious S-Bend, generally referred to as The Dragon Bend. Approaching the bend, BP decided to overtake a vehicle that was impeding his high-speed progress. Now there was not really a safe opportunity for BP to overtake and get round the bend with the certainty of no vehicle approaching from the other direction. He made it and I had no alternative but to make it too. I went into the first bend alongside the vehicle that had so desperately threatened to delay BP from his lunch. There was no point in me attempting to do otherwise. If it had been a Formula 1 move, I would have been summoned before the stewards and punished with a multi-place grid penalty.

I, obviously, also made it round the second bend though The details are lost in a blur and the rest of the journey was relatively sedate.

When we pulled into the garage yard and stopped, I sat in the car gathering my thoughts, allowing my heart rate to return to normal until BP came to the drivers door of the Renault. I politely asked what he had been playing at. ‘I had forgotten you were there ‘ was his reply. So he was absolutely oblivious to any problems I had and could not even remember the manoeuvre at The Dragon bend!

Fifteen miles felt more like fifty and the half to three quarters relates to lifetimes not hours.

I had never had a journey like it before or since.